"Modern societies can only exist if there is a healthy balance between collectivism and individualism."Sociologist Grigori Judin
No, there was no outcry in the Alpine republic when Austrian Chancellor Sebastian Kurz spoke in his speech to the world World Economic Forum Early 2020, between the lines indicated a crucial system change. Scattered, short press releases without further explanations, a few statements from NGOs - that's it. Since the beginning of the year, Kurz's declaration of war on collectivism has applied, which, according to him, has only brought one thing: "... suffering, hunger and unbelievable misery." European value system. Because shortly speaks "collectivism", it makes it sound like "communism", but rather wishes for "neoliberalism" (see regarding climate here).
"I think we all have to be careful that the issue of climate protection is not misused to protect the elderly collectivist ideas to advertise who always failed - no matter where in the world - and which brought only one thing: namely suffering, hunger and incredible misery. "Chancellor Sebastion Kurz at the World Economic Forum 2020
But what is behind the terms collectivism and the supposed antipole of individualism? This refers to value systems that give priority to the collective - that is, the political society, or in a nutshell: to all of us - or that focus on the individual and his interests. One thing in between: It has little to do with communism. Much more is meant: How does a society define itself?
It is very important: Even if collectivism and individualism are wrongly understood as opposites, they actually represent two independent dimensions in co-existence. Even if a society focuses on the common interest, this does not necessarily imply a restriction of individual freedom. But: collectivism and individualism can also have a slightly different meaning depending on the perspective, for example at the economic, political or social level.
Under collectivism is understood as a system of values and norms in which the wellbeing of the collective takes the highest priority. The interests of the individual are subordinated to those of the social group organized collectively.
The individualism is a system of thoughts and values in which the individual is the focus of attention.
It should be noted that individualism and collectivism in a cultural comparison are not opposite poles of a uniform dimension, but two completely independent dimensions; in fact, individualism and collectivism correlate exactly zero in a cultural comparison. * Like individualism, collectivism is not a rigid construct, ie just because there are predominantly collectivist values in a society does not mean that individualistic values do not also exist in it.
Sources: D. Oyserman, HM Coon, M. Kemmelmeier: Rethinking individualism and collectivism
The political level
“Austria is a democratic republic. Your right comes from the people, ”says Article 1 in the Austrian constitution. A choice is made in the face of many different opinions. It is therefore the task of democratic systems to organize themselves in such a way that individual interests are balanced and decisions are based on a presumed overall will, according to the prevailing opinion.
Regardless of how one looks at democracy, its success is based in particular on its achievements in favor of the collective, the population as a whole. Achievements that are actually only the socialism enabled: human rights, freedom of expression, solidarity, social benefits and many others. Collectivist achievements, which the current change in values to individualism or neoliberalism falter.
Role models of individualism
Take the example of the USA: The American dream has always been that of the individual - and of individual freedom. And he has shown that equality can also become a financial question, that care for the sick is not a matter of course, that provision in old age does not apply to everyone.
Russia is arguably the best example of a change in the value system and its consequences - both politically and socially. "Russia is one of the most individualistic countries ever," explains sociologist Grigori Judin. Although two things are associated with Soviet people, collectivism and hatred of individualism. Judin: “We imported a trimmed version of the liberal-democratic system: liberalism without democracy. That puts us in a very strange situation. Because all studies show that there is absolutely no reason not to think about the Soviet or today's Russian people. In general, the juxtaposition of individualism and collectivism is a questionable undertaking from the point of view of the social sciences: its founding fathers were more concerned with synthesis. "
From a sociological point of view, it is not a matter of contrasting individualism and collectivism. Judin: "Modern societies can only exist if there is a healthy balance between the two. Our problem is that there is an aggressive individualism in Russia, which is fed by fear and therefore turns into brutal competition, total mutual distrust and enmity. […] If you want to make a fool of yourself, all you have to do is use the word "common good". "
But that doesn't make everyone happy, explains the sociologist: “If you say that there is a lack of collective life in Russia, it also means that the need for it is always there. There are a number of signs that people overall are having difficulty coping with this deficiency. [...] Man is created in such a way that he needs collective goals, an identity. "
But there are also other opinions: The fact that the climate of social coldness, indifference and selfishness is unrestrained individualism, the lack of cohesion, the ego instead of the we should be to blame for the German philosopher Alexander Grau as a misdiagnosis. Germany is sinking into collective comfort: “Our society is by no means individualistic and obsessed with autonomy, independence and independence. The opposite is the case. Deeply scared and overwhelmed by the consequences of an autonomous, free lifestyle, modern man longs for security and security. It starts at the level of private life planning. […] Individualistic values, a postmodern way of life of independent individuals? At best on the surface. […] Instead, a permanently pubescent search for meaning reigns, which has absolutely nothing to do with independence and individuality, but yearns for commitment and collective security. "
Unlimited economic freedom?
So many opinions? Not at all. Those who talk about collectivism and individualism these days all too often mean the burning issue of neoliberalism or economic liberalism. And even if the term can be understood as a political concept or ideology, one thing is meant above all: extensive freedom of the economy, detached from too much government regulation. Ideally without a union and social partners. So individualism and the freedom of capital. Liberalization has been going on for a long time. Austria, for example, took this path a few decades ago under the guise of privatization. For example, parts of the healthcare or social services have long been “privatized”, that is, “associations” dependent on subsidies or “outsourced” companies that have been founded. By the way, mostly under political direction and instruction.
Who is politics serving? The people?
Incomprehensible? Where some say that the state no longer fulfills its most basic tasks for society (or the people), others believe that this mandate has never existed and still does not exist. A government of the republic serves only and alone. There is no state goal "well-being for all" enshrined in the constitution. (Here, by the way, on the subject of state goals.) The Austrian Chancellor's oath reads: "I vow that I will closely observe the constitution and all laws of the republic and that I will do my duty to the best of my knowledge and belief." No word that a chancellor is there for the good of all.
Chancellor Kurz makes no secret of his individualistic goals. The economy seems primarily important to him, which is legitimate according to current legislation: "We need ambitious environmental and climate protection and at the same time strong economic growth and economic success and I am totally optimistic that we can succeed if we as a European Union rely on our strengths, namely on our open society, on our free society and above all on our free and strong economy in Europe. "
INFO: Who benefits from politics?
One thing is certain: The "wellbeing of the people" is by no means constitutionally established. Only the term “republic” is intended to imply the common good, can be read on the official websites www.oesterreich.gv.at and www.parlament.gv.at. The government is responsible for the interpretation. “For the time since the 20th century, Wolfgang Mager or Josef Isensee noticed a clearing of meaning and inflationary use of the word. The term democracy determined and replaced the term republic, blurring the differences in meaning "government elected by the people" (democracy) and "politics serving the common good" (republic), as Hans Buchheim has pointed out " it says on Wikipedia.
Photo / Video: Shutterstock.